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Zazakely Sambatra assignment: for an effective vocational training in Madagascar

January 23rd, 2018

The Association Zazakely Sambatra operates in Madagascar for an integrated development through education. With a national context placing social inclusion at the center of public policies, it appealed to FTHM Consulting to develop a vocational training system aimed at both professional integration and the matching of skills to the market needs. The mission took place from April to June 2017 with a technical and legislative inventory of vocational training in Madagascar.

Since the end of the 1990s, Malagasy political and strategic orientations basically aim at professional integration and education. This is highlighted by Law No. 2015-040 on the orientation of the National Policy on Employment, Technical Education and Vocational Training (PNEFP). In this context, the Zazakely Sambatra Association has entrusted FTHM Consulting with a study mission to orient young people outside the traditional education system so that the needs of companies are in line with their skills and are supported by sustainable public action plans. The vocational training system thus concluded would promote greater effectiveness for the PNEFP and the five sectors it advocates: textile and garments, tourism, Buildings and Public Works (BTP), agriculture, and the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).

With a methodological approach focused on structured resolution and process, the fixtures inventory could highlight on one hand, a cartography of the actors and their interests and on the other hand, a global overview of Training in Madagascar and its financing mechanisms. To do this, a sector analysis was initiated.

The textile and garments sector is propelled by local groupings and constant capacity building policies. Nevertheless, employees do not feel valued and there is a lack of external funding and public accessible training centers.

Tourism sector seems favored through a wide range of opportunities, whether public or private. However, specialized training is still insufficient and requires academic knowledge. In addition, chronic and recurrent socio-economic crises have a negative impact on territorial attractiveness.

The delay in technical and technological advances does not favor the construction sector, in addition to a devaluation of workers, despite the large market of subcontracting companies creating jobs.

Regarding agriculture, on one hand, training is lacking in practice, which explains the lack of companies in the sector. But on the other hand, they do not require specific prerequisites. Furthermore, the diversity of national products promotes self-employment.

Finally, the ICT sector is developing today through flourishing demands and attractiveness. However, the lack of state control and subsidies hinders training accessibility.

To better understand the state of the current environment, three devices were analyzed: dual vocational training, the training implemented by civil society organizations (CSO) like the CEFOR, and the model of the Hotel Ecole. For the first device, national deployment is provided by a decentralized coordination unit. The other two devices do not have specific deployment mechanisms at this level. Moreover, disadvantaged young people are more targeted among them. There is even more of a social business model for the Hotel Ecole model. Regarding companies recognition, 80% of the dual training is conducted in-house, demonstrating a privileged involvement of the private sector in this practical training, similar to the sophisticated partnerships of the Hotel Ecole model with large specialized companies. In a similar way for the training of CSOs, it is about creating an interface structure between company and training entity in order to allow a better placement of young people in the professional world.

Given the problems of ineffective policies and deterioration of the world of employment, it is appropriate to encourage the involvement of public and private stakeholders. Through the MEETFP and its affiliated bodies, the Malagasy State can strengthen its base through greater transparency and ease in granting approvals and procedures. In the case of companies, it is a matter of consolidating a match between training and employment, particularly through practical training. This process would result in the targeting of disadvantaged young people, the promotion of ICT training, tourism and construction and practical training (to reduce the share of theories to 20%), and the setting up of a training center which would be a relay between trainer and company. All of this is part of a primary goal of financial empowerment of vocational training, considering it more as an investment than a one-off action.

This assignment allowed FTHM Consulting not only to present a prospective inventory of professional, socio-political and academic interests, but fundamentally to contribute to the development of the Madagascar’s professional world in consideration of major global issues and the demands of the current business world. Among the Least Developed Countries, Madagascar is showing social inclusion and education at the center of its current social, political and economic challenges. This study therefore proposes an optimistic and integrated vision through a utilitarian approach to occupations and sectors of activity. It is part of mission perspectives related to training and more generally sustainable development and integrated growth concepts.

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